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LiDAR: Light Detection And Ranging


We at BUMITOUCH always strive forwards to extend our services to the level of the utmost deliverables for Airborne Surveying data and finally produced Orthophoto, DEM, DTM, DSM, Contour & Drainage Pattern.

The usage of the remote sensing, GIS and GPS technologies can be of vast help to the management in oil palm re-planting program. The initial step involves a careful survey of the area and determining the exact definition of the boundaries. This can be supported by LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) imagery to give precise positioning, provided a good-quality visual material is available.

In using GPS receivers, the map of the plantation will be accurate, and this can be produced in a fully digitized form by scanning the terrain, hence producing virtual terrain which is defined numerically as well as graphically. The digitized map can then in principle be used in a computer –based GIS, in which all of the spatially defined information concerning the plantation can be collected and analyzed. If stereoscopic imagery is available, this allows a digital elevation model (DEM) of the area to be produced, in which the contours are plotted automatically, and may be produced as an elevation. This facility is particularly useful in hilly or broken terrain, where it can help to predict erosion risk.

Digital Terrain Model (DTM)

Digital Terrain Model (DTM) – DTM is the true earth elevation model represented by different colour intensities. The colour intensity image from LiDAR data shall be at 15cm meter or better resolution in ECW/Geotiff format

Common Uses

  • Topographical Mapping
  • Terrain modelling and visualization
  • Flood modelling
  • Cut and Fill analysis
  • Line of Sight Analysis
  • Slope Inventory/Analysis
  • Route Cross Section
  • Aspect Analysis
  • Contour Production
  • Drainage Pattern/Flow Accumulative and Direction
  • Geological Factor Map
  • Anthropogenic Factor Map
Digital Elevation Model (DEM)

A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is a digital model or 3D representation of a terrain’s surface

Common Uses

  • Terrain Roughness
  • Sampling Density (elevation data collection method)
  • Grid Resolution or Pixel Size
  • Interpolation Algorithm
  • Vertical Resolution
  • Terrain Analysis Algorithm
  • Tree & Building High with Dimension
Digital Surface Model (DSM)

Digital Surface Model (DSM)- Consists of present grid interval of ground points which represent the earth surface and include all objects on it which will include both natural and sizeable man made structure such as house, buildings, roads etc.

Common Uses

  • To visualize the city for various purposes (tourism, virtual tours, etc.),
  • Urban Planning
  • Navigation Systems
  • Intelligent Transportation Systems
  • Urban Risk Modeling
  • Architectural Visualization
  • Telecoms – Positioning of Mobile Phone Transmitters
  • Flood Risk Mapping
  • 3D Building Modelling
  • Tree Modelling
Digital Orthophotos

Included in the LiDAR system is the actual photographs taken simultaneously and tied to LiDAR information. Its shall be first be corrected (ortho-rectified) and re-position (Geo-Referencing) to the actual UTM coordinate. Digital Orthophoto files will be delivered in Geotiff format with suitable image resolution. Topographical Maps – A complete set of topographical maps scale 1:5,000 in paper sheet for all areas covered shall be provided. Both the plotted and digital shall be tied to UTM coordinate system. The digital format shall be in the AUTOCAD software version.

  LiDAR Raw Data

The completed data collection raw output in ASCII (all recorded returns, first last and any immediate returns, GPS time, intensity, X,Y,Z for point used to generate the DEM, shall be forwarded in External Drive. Point cloud data shall be provided in LAS format and shall record intensity value for each laser return.

Proper planning map

For planting point, road and terraces construction.